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Determinants & Success Factors that Influence the User Adoption of Mobile Payments in Germany

Adeteju Enunwa recently submitted and successfully presented her Master thesis about the determinants and success factors that influence user adoption of mobile payments in Germany. We asked her to provide a short summary of her thesis for our blog:

Master Thesis: Determinants and Success Factors that Influence the User Adoption of Mobile Payments in Germany

By Adeteju Enunwa

The swift adoption of smart phones globally has impacted various industries, thus  resulting in an explosion of mobile applications being used for the execution of various tasks across all sectors of the economy. The emergence of financial technology firms (Fintechs) who have redefined banking and payment has also resulted in an evolution in the way proximity based payments are made, with a gradual shift from cash, to contact only cards, to Dual Interface (DI) cards which supports contactless payments and now to mobile payments. Although, the payment scene has welcomed the presence of additional stakeholders such as Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) and Smart phone manufacturers e.g. Apple, Samsung with the evolution in NFC payments, mobile payments remains at a stagnant level with little or no growth in the adoption rate in Germany when compared to other European countries such as France, United Kingdom, Spain etc. where contactless is gradually the new alternative to cash.

The conceptual model was tested using two qualitative research methods namely: Observation and Interviews to carry out the study. The Observation phase was carried out over a period of five (5) days at a canteen in Munich, whereby the mode of payments of an average of one hundred and twenty (120) people were observed daily. Afterwhich, interviews were conducted to enable the researcher ascertain the factors that influence the intention to use and adopt mobile payments.

During the study, it was revealed that Data Privacy and Security were the core factors that would influence the intension to use mobile payments. Interestingly cost was an additional factor that also impacted the user's perception on usefulnesses which was derived by comparing the value added offerings and associated cost to existing alternatives.

Due to the sample size, there were some limitations based on the location and the fact that most participants interviewed were male, thereby social factors such as the influence of gender could not be explored. However, two core external factors beyond the control of the end user were identified as the major challenges facing the adoption of mobile payments in Germany. (1) The inexistent support and specification standards for mobile payments by the domestic network known as girocard and (2) the poor acceptance by merchants. A strategic collaboration among stakeholders of the payment industry will be required if mobile payments is to be successful in Germany. The average end user must be confident enough to visit any merchant without the fear of limited acceptance for contactless payments


  • Venkatesh, V., Morris, M., Davis, G., & Davis, F. (2003). User Acceptance of Information Technology: Toward a Unified View. MIS Quarterly, 27(3), 425-478. Retrieved from
  • Rogers, Everett M. (1995). Diffusion of innovations. The Free Press, Connecticut, USA.

(repost; originally posted on 2017-09-04)

May 2019